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EBIO 2100 - Marine Biology

This guide compliments the curriculum and assignments in EBIO 2100 - Marine Biology

Importance of Proper Citations

Proper citing is more important than just getting a good grade on a proper. When you give someone proper credit for their work, you are joining in on the scholarly conversation! You are contributing towards the scientific community in a positive way. A community, that you as a student and scholar have already joined. 

Bonus: Proper attribution substantially adds to the credibility and accuracy of your writing! 

Reference Style & List

Use the citation style of the journal Limnology and Oceanography. 

Examples of correct citations from The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography:

Article (no DOI) - Print Only:

Fenchel, T. 1986. Protozoan filter feeding. Prog. Protistol. 1: 65-113.

Wilson, S. G., and A. R. Martin. 2004. Body markings of the whale shark, vestigial or functional. West. Aust. Nat. 124: 118–134.

Articles with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

De Pol-Holz, R., O. Ulloa, L. Dezileau, J. Kaiser, F. Lamy, and D. Hebbeln. 2006. Melting of the patagonian ice sheet and deglacial perturbations of the nitrogen cycle in the eastern South Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33: 15-32, doi:10.1029/2005GL024477

Beutler, M., and others. 2002. A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ. Photosynth. Res. 72: 39–53. doi:10.1023/A:1016026607048 


Stumm, W., and J. Morgan. 1981. Aquatic chemistry, 2nd ed. Wiley.

Goldberg, E. D. 1985. Black carbon in the environment: Properties and distribution. Wiley-Interscience.

Book Chapter: 

Author Surname, Author Initial. Year Published. Chapter Title, p. Pages Used. In Title. Publisher.

Codispoti, L. A. 1983. Nitrogen in upwelling systems, p. 513-564. In E. J. Carpenter and D. G. Capone [eds.], Nitrogen in the marine environment. Academic.

Bryson, R. A., and K. F. Hare. 1974. Climates of North America, p. 5–12. In H. E. Landsberg [ed.], World survey of climatology . Elsevier Scientific, New York. 

Gonfiantini, R. 1986. Environmental isotopes in lake studies, p. 113–168. In P. Fritz and J. C. Fontes [eds.], Handbook of environmental geochemistry, vol. 2: The terrestrial environment. B. Elsevier Science, New York.

Encyclopedia entry:

Author Surname, Author Initial. Year Published. Title. Publication Title Pages Used.


Sacks, L.A. 2002. Estimating ground-water inflow to lakes in central Florida using the isotope mass-balance approach. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 02- 4192.

Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. 2010. Alberta irrigation information: Facts and figures for the year 2009. Government of Alberta.


U.S. Ocean Commission. 2004. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century [accessed 2015]. Available from 

e-Journal or Online Access to a Journal?

Online access to a Print Journal

Most of the Journals we have online are actually duplicate copies of the print version of the Journal. That is, you are simply getting electronic access to a Journal we may have on our shelves. 

Online Only 

This journal was born digital. It only ever existed in the online world. 

How do I know the difference?

It has become a lot harder to tell the difference as print and their elecotronic journal counterparts are starting to be formatted the same. Eventually, there may be no need to distinguish the two. Until then, here are some tips to differentiate the two:

  • Is there a doi in the article record? If yes, use it and cite as directed
  • Go to the Journals website to find out more about it, including if it is available online and print
  • Still unsure? Do a search for the Journal using Ulrich's periodicals. 

Do I cite them differently?


  • Cite the electronic article of a print journal just like a normal print Journal. If it has the doi - use it!! Otherwise, there is no need to include the URL
  • Cite an article from an e-journal (only ever online) then do include the full URL. 

Secondary Sources (as cited in)

If you want to use a piece of information in an article (Article A.) which the author of Article A has cited (from Article B), you need to:

  • Go to the original source (Article B) and read the article and information for yourself. Then cite Article B. 
  • You can then cite Article B yourself and include it in your Reference list because you verified the information was accurate.


What if you can't find Article B? (best option: make an Interlibrary Loans request for the article)

  • If you are unable to locate the original article, then you can give credit to the author by stating (as cited in Article B) 
  • Do not then include Article B in your reference list
  • Use Sparingly 
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