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Economics Library Guide

Research tools for economics.

Judging a Resource's Credibility

Need help determining a resource's credibility? Use the TRAAP(S) test!

  Questions to Consider
Timeliness & Truth

- How old is the source?

- Have the source's findings been proven inaccurate?

- Does the source reflect the time period you are investigating?

- Are there credible references that support the claims?


- Does this resource relate to the topic you are investigating? And if so, how does it relate?


- Who produced this resource?

- What are the qualifications of the entity that produced this resource?


- Who was this resource produced for? / Who benefits or is harmed by this resource being produced and/or share?

- What thought, emotion, or action does the creator want to impart on the user?

- What is the purpose of the resource's production/sharing -- entertainment? research? learning? persuasion? Understanding this element will help you decipher bias.


- Do the responsible entities have financial, social, or political ties that may impact their ability to speak objectively about the topic? (Bias)

- Does the resource represent a multitude of perspectives/schools of thought on the topic? 

-  Does the resource contain highly subjective/emotional language? 

Site Structure and Syntax (Websites & Digital Content)

- Check the URL to determine if the resource was created by a commercial entity, the government, or some other entity.

- Read content on the same topic from another site to determine information accuracy.

- Check for advertisements to help determine those with interest in the information being produced and/or shared?

This table represents a modified version of the CRAAP test. The TRAAP Test is modified from The CRAAP Test, created by Sarah Blakeslee and the librarians at California State University's Meriam Library in 2004.

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