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Animal Alternatives: Literature Searching for Animal Research: A Guide

Search strategies and advice for IACUC Literature Search

Suggested Keywords for Searches

In addition to searching for research similar to your own, you will need to look for literature that mentions alternatives involving reduction, refinement, and replacement of animals in laboratory research.  

Reduction and Refinement

Analgesic, hypnotic, sedative, tranquilizer
Anesthesia, anaesthesia
Enrichment (behavioral, behavioural, environmental)
Handling, housing, husbandry, caging

Invasive, non-invasive
Monitoring device
Positive reinforcement
Postoperative, postsurgery
Reduction, refinement
Restraint, restrict, immobilize
Stress,psychological/prevention and control

Train, educate, teach, instruct
Welfare, pain, stress, distress



Anesthesia, anesthesia, anaesthesia
Animal testing alternatives, alternative

Animal use alternatives
Artificial intelligence system, AI
Assay, technique, method, procedure
Bacteria, microorganism, protozoan, single-celled organism, yeast
Cell, cell line, cellular
Computer aided instruction, computer assisted instruction, CAI
Culture (cell, tissue, organ)
Digital imaging
Environmental enrichment

          Isolated (cell, tissue, organ)
Mannequin, manikin, manikin
Membrane, organ, organelle, slice, tissue, tissue equivalent
Model (animal, cadaveric, interactive, mathematical, statistical, theoretical), modelling
Replacement, surrogate
Simulation (computer)
Train, educate, teach, instruct
Virtual (surgery, reality)
Vitro (AND method, model, technique)

 -The University of North Carolina Health Sciences Library

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