Similar to an hourglass, the Discussion section should clearly map onto the Introduction section of your research paper. The discussion section allows you to bring together the results of your study and the interpretation of the results within the context of previous research and literature, which you included in your Introduction.
Begin the Discussion section by providing the results and conclusion of your research study in plain English. Stating that your hypothesis was either confirmed or rejected is not satisfactory, you must elaborate further by reminding readers what it was you were interested in researching and what you have learned. This is the most specific part of the Discussion section.
Then compare your results to the literature that you referenced in your introduction section and to other research that has been conducted. In this section you will also want to address the generalizability and potential limitations of your study.
Finally it is often recommended that a section on future research directions be included in your Discussion. Thereby concluding your research paper with a broad statement as to the future of your research topic.
The abstract should be written after your have completed your research and written your article.
The abstract is very concise and often does not exceed more than 120 words. It should contain a sentence addressing each section of the the article including:
All of this must be written as coherently and succinctly as possible. Remove unnecessary words wherever you can and remove information that is not absolutely pertinent to a reader's understanding of your research question or study. To ensure each word is pertinent, you may need to evaluate the importance of each section and remove details in sections such as the methodology and results.
The abstract will require plenty of time to write and will undergo many revisions, so be patient, and never hesitate to ask for help.
The title should also be written following the completion of your research study and article. The title should be no longer than 10 words in length, engaging, and provide a quick overview of your research article. It is essential that the title be clear and focused on the findings of your study.
Some advice when communicating your research:
A table from the article “Communicating the Science of Climate Change,” by Richard C. J. Somerville and Susan Joy Hassol, from the October 2011 issue of Physics Today, page 48:
Science Blogs and Magazines are great examples on how to communicate science to the general public