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While there are many reasons which students commit plagiarism, most have this in common: Not enough time was taken to develop a true understanding of the subject so as to describe it in your own words, and racing to meet a deadline before your work is fully baked. Judgements are rendered regardless of reason.
Any time that you're using someone else's words, research, or images, you want to make sure that you put quotation marks around the information that is not your own writing.
However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is best to use them:
Use the image below to help frame your quotation using the ICE method - Introduce, using signal quotes; Cite the quote with an in-text citation; and Explain, using your own words to connect the quote or information to the rest of your paper.
When introducing your quote, use a signal phrase:
You'll also want to be sure to cite the original source. This should be done within the text of your paper with either a footnote, an endnote superscript, or with a parenthetical in-text citation. In addition, for each source you use, be sure to supply a separate citation with complete bibliographic information on a Works Cited or References page at the end of your document.
Whether you use footnotes, endnotes, or parenthetical notation depends on what documentation style your professor requires you to use (for example, MLA, Chicago, APA, or Turabian). In addition, the formatting of bibliographic information (author’s name, title, publisher, date of publication, etc.) should also be formatted according to the course’s required documentation style.
Following MLA guidelines for in-text citations, place the author’s name and the page number from the original source inside the parentheses.
Example 1: Most professors agree that “Every student must properly document sources following the specific guidelines of a particular association” (Smith 213).
If you use the author's name in your text, you simply need to place the page number in the parentheses.
Example 2: According to James Smith, “Every student must properly document sources following the specific guidelines of a particular association” (213).
When quoting a source, use the ICE method:
Summarizing is about:
It's more about the big picture, rather than small details like a quotation or paraphrase.
Tips for summarizing:
A word of caution: while summarizing is about the big picture, you want to be sure to include enough details to make sure it isn't confused for something else.
Paraphrasing is about putting a quote into your own words.
“We have already seen that one of the results stemming from the shift from the oral to the literary in the institutionalization of the fairy tale was a loss of live contact with the storyteller and a sense of community or commonality.”
Source: Jack Zipes, Fairy Tale as Myth/Myth as Fairy Tale, 1983, p. 78
Jack Zipes, professor emeritus from the University of Minnesota and a well-known fairy tale expert, insists the connection that is created by verbally sharing fairy tales has been lost over time as fairy tales began being shared as print materials instead of being shared by word-of-mouth (78).
Additional Examples to Avoid Plagiarizing your Paraphrase
Check out additional examples to avoid plagiarizing your paraphrase here: https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase.html
Generally, if information is common knowledge (e.g. Bill Clinton was president of the United States or the moon revolves around the earth), you do not need to cite the source of that information. But if you are not certain as to whether or not something is common knowledge, or if you think your readers may not be familiar with certain facts, it is best to provide a citation for the information. It is always best to err on the side of caution - the more time you spend researching a topic, the more something might seem like it's common knowledge when it might not be.